Oral Pathology

Cystic lesions of the jaws

Cysts are benign pathologic cavities filled with fluid or soft material, normally lined with epithelium. The bones of the jaws, the mandible and maxilla, are the bones with the highest prevalence of cysts in the human body. If cysts arise from tissue that will normally develop into teeth, they are called odontogenic cysts. Otherwise, they are termed non-odontogenic. Both can be developmental or inflammatory. Cysts rarely cause any symptoms unless they become infected. They are normally discovered during routine dental x-ray examination. If treatment is required, it involves some minor surgery for partial or complete removal of the cyst.

cystic lesions


White lesions of oral mucosa

White lesions have their characteristic appearance attributed to the thickened layer of keratin, blanching due to reduced vascularity and loss of pigmentation. Their etiology can vary from genetic disorders like white spongy nevus to neoplastic lesions like oral squamous cell carcinoma. There are no specific signs and symptoms that can reliably predict whether a leukoplakia will undergo malignant change or not. The treatment varies from medicinal to surgery and depends to the diagnosis. Because of malignancies can present clinically as white oral lesions, thorough examination is required to discriminate among the begign, pre-malignant and malignant group.


Ulcers of oral mucosa

Oral ulcers are characterized by loss of the mucosal layer and they can be acute, chronic, localized or diffuse. Aphthous ulcers are considered one of the most common oral lesions. Aside from traumatic etiology, oral ulcers can also result from certain medical conditions such as viral infections, vitamin B12 or iron deficiency, Crohn’s disease, coeliac disease, reactive arthritis and Behçet’s disease. In some situations, non-healing oral ulcers can be the sign of underlined malignancy, especially when occurring on the lateral aspect of the tongue, the floor of the mouth and soft palate.

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